Difference Between Mitosis and Meiosis Chart

Cell Cycle

Cell division is important for all living organisms. It is involved in the repair, growth, development, and reproduction processes. Cell division is important for the maintenance of chromosome numbers and genetic variations in the next generation.

The cell cycle is a sequence of changes during which a cell grows in size, DNA is replicated and the cell is divided into new cells. The cell cycle consists of two phases called the interphase and mitotic phase. During interphase, the cell prepares all the necessary machinery i.e., proteins, DNA replication, and enzymes required for cell division, while the mitotic phase is characterized by the division of the cell into new cells.

There are two types of cell divisions observed in all organisms i.e., mitosis and meiosis. Both cell division is generally divided into karyokinesis and cytokinesis. Kayokinesis is associated with nucleus division, while cytokinesis refers to cytoplasm division.

Video Lesson

1. Mitosis

Mitosis is a cell division that occurs in somatic cells. It maintains the 2n number of chromosomes in the next generation thus maintaining and preserving the genetic stability of the particular species.

The karyokinesis stage of mitosis is further divided into four phases i.e., prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

  1. During prophase, the nuclear envelope ruptures, nucleoli disappear, chromosome appears and genetic material is released into the cytoplasm. Moreover, the mitotic apparatus is organized.
  2. Metaphase is characterized by duplication of sister chromatids and alignment of chromosomes at the equator with the help of mitotic apparatus.
  3. In anaphase, equal distribution of chromatids and movement towards opposite poles take place.
  4. Chromosomes de-condense and disappear after reaching the opposite poles during telophase.

After equal distribution of chromosomes, cytokinesis or division of cytoplasm divided the cell into two new daughter cells.

Importance of mitosis

Mitosis is involved in the repair, growth, and development of an organism. It heals the wound and helps in regeneration by producing new cells. It also replaces old cells with new cells. 

In mitosis, the genetic material is divided equally into the daughter cells. Mitosis produces genetically identical daughter cells as the crossing-over process is absent in it. 

Any malfunctioning in mitosis results in uncontrolled cell division leading to the establishment of unwanted tumors or cancer.

2. Meiosis

Meiosis is a cell division that occurs in sex cells. It reduces the “2n” number of chromosomes to the “n” number in the next generation. This characteristic of meiosis helps in the restoration and maintenance of chromosomes number in the next generation when male and female gametes are fused to form a zygote.

Meiosis is divided into meiosis I and II. Meiosis I is the reduction division while meiosis II is just like mitosis. Both divisions are divided into four phases just like mitosis except I and II refers to meiosis I and II.

The prophase I of meiosis I is very important and prolonged as it is associated with the pairing of chromosomes (synapsis), chiasmata formation, and crossing over. These sequences of events result in genetic recombination and make the next generation different from the parent generation.

Importance of meiosis

Crossing over during meiosis results in new genetic variations which help in the adaptation, survival, and evolution of species. It also makes the next generations different from the parent generations, even siblings are different from each other.

It is involved in the gametes or spore formation, so the number of chromosomes is restored in the next generation after fertilization. The maintenance of the constant number of chromosomes is important for species identification and characteristics.

Any malfunctioning or non-disjunction of chromosomes during meiosis results in genetic disorders or even the death of the baby. Down’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, and Turner’s syndrome are some genetic disorders that result due to meiotic errors.

Difference between mitosis and meiosis chart

Even though meiosis is similar to mitosis in many ways, there are many important differences between mitosis and meiosis. Some of the differences between mitosis and meiosis are listed below.

Mitosis

Meiosis

It occurs in Somatic cells

It occurs in Germ cells

Nucleus divides only once

Nucleus divides twice

It is divided into prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase

Meiosis I and II divided into prophase I and II, metaphase I and II, anaphase I and II and telophase I and II

Daughter cells are diploid

Daughter cells are haploid

No crossing over takes place

Crossing over takes place

Increase number of normal cells

Produces egg and sperm cells

Involved in healing and growth

Involved in genetic variations

2 daughter cells are produced

4 daughter cells are produced

Malfunction results in cancer

Malfunction results in genetic disorder such as Down’s syndrome, klinefelter’s syndrome and Turner’s syndrome.



















Here is the diagram of difference between mitosis and meiosis chart

Difference between mitosis and meiosis chart

Difference Between Mitosis and Meiosis Chart


Some questions and answers

1. How many types of cell divisions are there?

A. The two types of cell divisions are mitosis and meiosis.

2. What is the cell cycle?

A. Cell cycle is a sequence of changes during which a cell grows in size, DNA is replicated and the cell is divided into new cells. The cell cycle consists of two phases called the interphase and mitotic phase.

3. State a few similarities between mitosis and meiosis.

A. Mitosis occurs in a somatic cell, while meiosis occurs in sex cells. Mitosis produces diploid cells while meiosis produces haploid cells. Mitosis is involved in healing and repair, while meiosis is associated with genetic variations.

4. What happens when mitosis malfunctions?

A. Malfunctioning in mitosis results in uncontrolled cell division leading to the establishment of unwanted tumors or cancer.

5. What causes meiotic errors?

A. The non-disjunction of chromosomes during meiosis results in meiotic errors in which chromosome numbers may increase or decrease.

6. Name some genetic disorders that result from meiotic errors.

A. Down’s syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome, and Turner’s syndrome are the results of meiotic errors.

Choose the best possible answer

1. Meiosis is involved in

A. Healing of wound

B. Regeneration

C. Genetic variations

D. Growth

Answer: C

2. Diploid cells are produced by

A. Mitosis

B. Meiosis

C. Interphase

D. None of the above

Answer: A

3. Which phase of meiosis I is important for genetic variations in the next generation?

A. Prophase I

B. Prophase II

C. Metaphase II

D. Telophase I

Answer: A

4. Chiasmata formation occurs during

A. Mitosis

B. Meiosis I

C meiosis II

D. Cytokinesis

Answer: B

5. How many daughter cells are produced by mitosis?

A. 2

B. 3

C. 4

D. 5

Answer: A




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