What is the Function of Chloroplast?

Chloroplasts are organelles present in plant cells. They, through the photosynthetic process, transform light energy into comparatively stable chemical energy. This property allows them to preserve life on Earth.

what is the function of chloroplast
Diagram of chloroplast

Chloroplasts consist of two membranes that enclose thylakoids, grana, lamella, and stroma. The thylakoid membrane contains a special pigment called chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is essential for photosynthesis as well as it also gives plants green color. Chloroplast also contains ribosomes and chloroplast DNA making it a self-replicating organelle.

The details of chloroplast can be studied here.

What is the function of chloroplast?  

The main functions of the chloroplast are:

  • It captures sunlight and converts light energy into chemical energy.
  • The chloroplast is responsible to carry out the photosynthesis process. Photosynthesis is a process in which plant produces food in the presence of sunlight.
  • It provides green color to the leaf.
  • ATP, an energy currency is produced inside chloroplast during photosynthesis.
  • NADH or NADPH are produced.
  • It is involved in the production of oxygen molecules by the breakdown of water.
  • The carbon dioxide captured from the air is fixed into sugar molecules during the Calvin cycle inside the chloroplast.
  • Chloroplasts provide plant cells with numerous metabolic processes, including starch, fatty acid synthesis, hormones, and membrane lipids.

Video Lesson


  • Takagi, S. (2003). Actin-based photo-orientation movement of chloroplasts in plant cells. Journal of Experimental Biology, 206(12), 1963-1969.
  • Soll, J., & Schleiff, E. (2004). Protein import into chloroplasts. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 5(3), 198-208.
  • Lemaire, S. D., Michelet, L., Zaffagnini, M., Massot, V., & Issakidis-Bourguet, E. (2007). Thioredoxins in chloroplasts. Current genetics, 51(6), 343-365.
  • Image created in BioRender.com

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